ICT teacher handbook/What is the nature of ICT

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ICT teacher handbook
School level implementation guidelines What is the nature of ICT Data representation and processing

Chapter Objectives

This chapter is to introduce students to the various possibilities of ICT in creating and communicating. The students must get familiar with interacting with ICT as well as be able to comfortably use different applications. Understanding that technology is a social resource, and how ICT can help them, their school or community is an important focus of this unit.

Interacting with ICT

  1. Understanding the nature of ICT
    1. How technology has developed in society
    2. How ICT have developed and changed the way society is organized today
    3. Developing a historical perspective on technology and understanding technology as a human process
    4. Appreciation of the potential of ICT and what could be the problems using ICT
  2. Understanding about the ICT environment
    1. Appreciating that a computer can do many things; unlike many other electronic appliances
    2. Understanding the difference between hardware and software
    3. Getting familiar with various devices and applications
  3. Understanding the safe use of ICT, including the internet
  4. Understanding the ethical and legal aspects of ICT

Communicating with ICT

  1. Understanding that the computer communicates with data, and can connect to other devices
  2. Understanding of the internet and the web
  3. Understanding that the internet is a resource for accessing information
    1. Accessing the internet, searching for information and using the browser and accessing different web sites
    2. Evaluating the information and creating a personal digital library for self learning
  4. Understanding how to use technology for connecting with each other for learning
  5. Developing an understanding of the role the Internet is playing in the society
  6. Understand safe and ethical ways of using the internet

Creating with ICT

  1. Understanding that you can do various things with ICT (like writing, painting, mapping, singing)
  2. Understanding that data of different kinds and can be edited, processed, combined in multiple formats which is what makes it possible to do many things with ICT
  3. Understanding that there are different devices for reading, representing data
  4. Understanding that data can be organized in files and folders
  5. Getting familiar with input devices
  6. Getting familiar with different applications for creating with ICT

Digital learning resources

  1. Handout for Basic Digital Literacy
  2. Handout for Tux Typing
  3. Handout for Tux Paint
  4. Handout for Freeplane
  5. Handout for Firefox
  6. Handout for LibreOffice Writer

Additional Resources

  1. History of Charles Babbage, who is considered the Father of Computing
  2. What is an operating system
  3. How has the desk changed
  4. World Wide Web
  5. Internet of things
  6. Watch this CC-BY video

Transaction notes for activities

Each activity has the following components - time estimate, prior preparation, methodology, discussion questions, subject integration and portfolio.

Each theme of the textbook and the associated activities have been designed keeping in mind the possibilities for peer learning. Not all students will work with all data files; so the teacher should allow for an organized sharing/ presentation time for students to learn from each others' work. This can be done at the end of each activity or at the end of each level. This is left to the teacher to decide. Students can also be encouraged to help one another, to create a collaborative and supportive learning environment.

Level 1 -> 6 weeks

The first level requires 6 weeks of 3 periods each. 1 period is for teacher demonstration and discussion; two periods for hands-on work by students. (Instead of a single block of 3 periods, the school can also plan the time table such that the demonstration period can be a single period, while the hands-on 2 periods can be combined into a block period).

This theme being the first introduction to the students, might require a longer time, especially for students to get introduced and oriented to the ICT environment. Hence, some amount of time has been suggested for reading, theory and discussion.

A suggested break-up of activity-wise periods is given below. This is indicative, the teacher is encouraged to adjust the periods between activities and also between demonstration and hands on activity as needed.

Title Reading No of weeks (3

periods each)




Student activity


About nature of ICT (Reading and theory) Reading included 2 2 4
How is a computer different from a fridge 2 2 4
What all can a computer do? 2 2 4

How is a computer different from a fridge

  1. It will be useful to go through the additional links given for this discussion; the classroom must have a projection enabled for this session. The labs should have sufficient computers for students to explore, including removing and fixing the connections to other devices, switching and logging on etc. If there is a non-working computer (CPU) in the school, it could be kept opened to allow students to see and study the parts inside the cabinet.
  2. In small groups ask students to come up why a computer is different from a fridge and this can be compiled digitally using a mind mapping tool
  3. Project this for discussion and encourage students to classify the different things a computer does
  4. Introduce to the children that computer understands data and applications communicate data; distinguish between an operating system and application software
  5. In small groups encourage students to switch on the computer, get familiar with the various applications.
  6. Show them some common applications like Text processor, Mind mapping tool, Painting tool, browser, etc.
  7. Help the students create their own folders in which they will save their work (As a prior work, the login-ids for each student would need to be created on the computer on which they would work. Alternately, this could be done after the first few classes, when the student seating is firmed up. In case students are storing their files only on the server, and logging into the server, there would be greater flexibility for the student seating, else students should always sit on the computer, where their login has been created.
  8. In small groups let the students talk about any application they are familiar with and list out the steps involved (this can be a flow chart or mind map). This can be used to introduce the idea of computing - the ability to process input to get an outcome.
  9. Student created mind maps can be digitized (you can take a photograph of their hand drawn map) and added to their cumulative portfolio.

What all can a computer do

This activity requires a 3-period block: 1 period for demonstration and 2 periods for the hands-on work.
Demonstration 1
It may be an interesting idea to start the class with this video : How has the work desk changed.

The video shows as a time line how different applications came into the computer. Ask students to watch and make their comments. Encourage them to talk about any applications that they see on the video that are familiar to them. You can pause the video at any point if required to explain a point. You can also play it any number of times as needed. This may help you in getting all students to follow the video. Following this show them the various files on their computer (or on the school server).
Demonstration 2
Resources needed

The suggested files for showing in the class are listed in the textbook and will be available in the offline textbook also. In addition you can open the following educational applications:

Demonstration steps

  1. Demonstrate the folder structure of resource files, and show how you have organized the resources for the class.
  2. When opening each file ask students to focus on the following:
    1. What is the file name and file extension
    2. How the application was opened (from a menu or right click)
    3. What all did they see on the application
    4. What input had to be given (for example, opening a browser and typing an URL)
    5. What controls are available (increase in size, volume, etc)
  3. On student computers, create a folder with an image, video, text document, animation, text document, concept map, geogebra file (from the offline textbook)
  4. Students must open the folder on the computers and each of the files. Show the students the Applications Menu on the computer and ask them to explore multiple applications. From this class onwards, they will be creating their own resources on the computer.
  5. When you have accessed pages from the internet, through a discussion, introduce the idea that the internet is a connection of many computers. This connectivity is an important aspect of ICT - which allows us to access information, communicate etc. Based on the level of student awareness, the teacher can introduce emails, mobile communication, chats, etc.
  6. Students must practice Tux Typing, Tux Paint. They should also know how to open their creations in Tux Paint (See page Learn Tux Paint). In a text editor, students must make a list of 8-10 things they know about ICT.

Level 2 -> 2 weeks

At this level, the activities require an ability to understand ideas of society and choices made by society. If it seems difficult to transact this with the class, this entire section can be moved to the end of the year or combined with Level 3 activities.

When did it all begin and the human story

(Note that the transaction notes do not repeat suggestions made in earlier transaction notes, since it is assumed the teacher would be familiar with them).

  1. These are two activities in Nature of ICT level 2 to introduce students to the idea that technology developed in society.
  2. Hands on work will be in the form of discussions, and students writings about their understanding of technology.
  3. Since both the activities overlap, you can also combine the activities to facilitate a discussion
  4. Before starting the activity, ask students to discuss about technologies they are aware of and collect information about the technology.
  5. The focus of these two activities is to guide the students to understand that technology is not neutral, it impacts society in good an not-so-good ways and society shapes technology. Students must also get an understanding that technology has a life cycle.
  6. Use the Science, Technology and Society chapter in the textbook to read with the class and also explore with the students different devices shown. Let the students imagine and talk about the contexts and requirements that would have allowed the different devices to develop
  7. Using the Jacquard loom, facilitate a discussion on the idea of programming and help the students understand how a machine that is programmed to do an activity is different from a general purpose calculation device (this is similar to the activity how a computer is different from a fridge)
  8. There is an example given in the textbook of a potter; ask the students to find out about other occupations in their locality and ask them to write a short note about how technology, including ICT, can impact the person and the occupation.
  9. Depending on the understanding of the students, you can talk to them about computer development was given importance during the second world war. Show the slideshow of Alan Turing and tell students the story of Enigma
  10. Students can express their ideas and work in the form of picture stories. If there is adequate time available, students can add text to their picture stories. If students are typing their text document, you can teach them how to insert their pictures.

Level 3 -> 5 weeks

This level requires five weeks of 3 periods each. 1 period is for teacher demonstration and discussion; two periods for hands-on work by students. The focus in this theme is on students understanding the various ways in which technology touches them in multiple ways, even beyond the various activities they would have done in the classroom.

Title Reading No of weeks (3

periods each)




Student activity


About nature of ICT (Reading) Reading included
The machine is using us 1 1 2
The global digital library 2 2 4
I have a new address 2 2 4

The machine is using us

  1. This activity requires internet connectivity in the lab.
  2. Read the section on What is the internet with the students. It is important for the students to understand that the internet is a network of computers and the world wide web is different from the internet. Discuss about the internet of things and encourage the students to discuss the purposes where internet is used -Reading information, News, Radio, TV programmes, Webcast instead of telecast, Booking movie tickets, Shopping..and so many more..
  3. Show the video "The machine is using us" and discuss in class.
  4. During the demonstration activity, show the students how to use a browser and how to access the internet pages using a browser. Explain that search engine is a website and this will help look up pages on the internet. Show the following different kinds of websites.
  5. Students should create a text document in which they record the websites they access.
    1. Search engine
    2. Information (Newspapers (http://eenadu.com, http://deccanchronicle.com), TV Channels, Web Dunia, Maps, Weather, Search engines)
      • Search for two more newspaper websites
    3. Resource repositories - National Repository of Open Educational Resources (NROER), Vidya on-line, KOER
      • Identify two more resource websites
    4. Video downloads / photograph sharing (youtube, teacher tube, geogebratube)
      • Identify two more such websites
    5. Public services websites (IRCTC)
    6. Banking and e-commerce websites (Internet banking, buying books, booking my movie tickets, Computer vendor)
      • Identify two more such commercial websites
    7. Social networking websites
    8. Collaborative websites (Discussion forums, Hardware software forums, Wikipedia)
    9. Institutional websites

The global digital library

  1. This activity requires two weeks of 3 periods: 1 period for demonstration and 2 periods for the hands-on work.
  2. This activity requires internet connectivity in the lab.
  3. Refer to the teacher handbook for how you can build a personal digital library.
  4. Demonstrate how to access the internet and download information.
  5. Show students how to look for authentic information on the web.
  6. Introduce students to copyright and how to access open licensed content
  7. This activity has a lot of portfolio requirements. Students must create a concept map that describes the information that they would research on.
  8. In groups the students will download the information needed and create a resource folder
  9. Encourage the students to summarize and evaluate the information they have accessed, in a text document

I have a new address

  1. This activity requires two weeks of 3 periods: 1 period for demonstration and 2 periods for the hands-on work.
  2. This activity requires internet connectivity in the lab.
  3. As a prior preparation for this activity, the teacher must create email IDs for the students. From internet safety standpoint, we have suggested that teachers do the ID creation, and also help in configuring the privacy and inbox settings of the gmail account.
  4. If you are able to manage this as an activity in your school, you can also create a email group for the class.
  5. In the classroom activity, demonstrate how to send and receive emails, individually and to groups. Talk to students about internet safety as well as email habits like replying, forwarding, copying, etc. Explain to students that passwords must be secure. It is important to log out of email account especially when using public computers.
  6. Students must be able to access an email address and each student should have sent at least two mails, one with an attachment.
  7. Social media is not introduced as part of the syllabus, however, you can use this unit to introduce to students ideas on how to operate safely in the virtual world.